The history of the SS United States Lines S.S.
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Maritime Historian, Cruise‘n’Ship Reviewer, Author & Lecturer
Please Note: All ssmaritime as well as my other related maritime & cruise sites are 100% non-commercial and privately owned sites. Be assured that I am NOT associated with any shipping or cruise companies or agencies or any other organisations! The author has been in the passenger shipping industry since May 1960, but although retired and unwell, I occasionally attempt to write an article now and then, in order to bring enjoyment and pleasure to ship enthusiasts past passengers and crew.
me personally the “S.S. America” story is quite unique, as this
truly great ship was designed the one of the great in naval/maritime design
I am in such awe of the late great William F. Gibbs that I have and image of his bust proudly hanging in my gallery, and we should also remember that he was also the designer of the greatest of all American liners the S.S. United States, a ships that remains with us to this very day, and ssMaritime, together with Save the Classic Liner Campaign fully supports the great effort that is being undertaken by the S.S. United States Conservancy, which has for interest a very interesting person on the board, Susan Gibbs, the granddaughter of William Francis Gibbs! Please visit … www.savetheclassicliners.com.
Therefore this page covers the S.S. America from her very conception in the mid 1930s to her sale to Chandris Lines in 1964. Thus you will the relevant are links located at the bottom of this page covering her later incarnation. In addition you will also find a Photo Page showing so much more of her interiors, and another Page with a complete Deck Plan of the S.S. America as built, revealing the ship with her original Cabin Class, Tourist and Third Class! In addition you will discover that you are able to click on each deck in order to enlarge it (opens on a separate page) providing a greatly improved view. Thus, I believe that is feature will have much for all classic ship lovers, but especially those who love and admire this amazingly great Liner, the S.S. America!
Historian, Author & Lecturer &
Working for almost 55 years in the Passenger Shipping Industry.
Here we see a delightful company photograph of the S.S. America looking so beautiful and graceful!
Photographs: Many of the images on
this page are from the author’s private collection, having obtained them
when he managed the GSA of Chandris Lines, who operated the ex S.S. America,
This page will cover S.S.
America’s glory years for she was indeed the “Grand Forerunner”
to the mighty S.S. United States, yet the
image of the bust of
actual bust is located at the “
The United States Lines together with the Shipping Board of America commenced negotiating in 1933 for the building of a new Liner to replace the S.S. Leviathan. Then on March 19, 1934 the United States Lines and the Shipping Board signed a contract promising to start construction within the next 6 months of a new ship, although the ship remained unnamed. A month later it was announced that the famed William Francis Gibb of, Gibbs and Cox Naval Architects had been given the job of designing a new ship, that would be the grand design for another, but the ultimate American liner, thus this as yet unnamed ship would ultimately be dubbed as the “Grand Forerunner” of the S.S. United States!
We need to understand that the S.S. Leviathan has been laid up from 1933 to 1937, as she had been losing huge amounts on the Atlantic service. With this in mind, the agreement was stalled several times, but thankfully it was finally set in concrete, so to say, on March 18, 1935. On March 20, United States Lines President, Mr. Basil Harris stated that the company proceed quickly with the Gibbs & Cox plans for a $12 million, 50,000 gross ton, 24 knot super cabin liner.
However, nothing more was heard until the
announcement by the Shipping Board on September 14, 1935 who finally instructed
the United States Lines to order the ship by December 16, or face a $1 million
penalty. You may ask why, the sudden hurry? The Shipping Board was well aware
what was happening in
Tenders were officially sought on October 10,
however on November 12 there was just one applicant, being Newport News Ship
building & Dry Dock Company, and at a huge bid of US$15,890,000. Obviously,
considerable negotiations would go on with
At the yard, up to 5,000 tons of steel was arriving as her building officially began on June 19, 1938, but her keel was to be laid in late August, with the launching set for July 15, 1939, and delivery for February 20, 1940.
The new ship was designated “number
569” and her keel was laid at 11:00 AM on August 22, 1938. The Maritime
it was on December 4, 1938, the company’s President,
A wonderful view her stern, rudder and her two - four bladed propellers
A great view of her bow during her building at Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock
the S.S. America having been completed ready to head for her refitting berth,
she was made ready for her official launching, which would take place on August
31 1939. Having been designed and built
to weather any kind of North Atlantic conditions the company was looking
forward to see their new liner head across to
A delightful impression the S.S. America seen at her joyful launching
the launching would go ahead, and it would be a major event! Significantly, her
gala launching on August 31, 1939 and official “Christening” ay the
hand of First Lady Mrs. Franklin D Roosevelt that was witnessed by more than
30,000 people, was of course overshadowed because what would happen the very
next day. However, the
She is seen here during her fitting out process and her forward funnel has just been placed onboard
But note the height, as it is rather low, more re this after her official navy the “measured” mile trails!
finally completed departed form the yard at 0400 on June 4, 1940 under the
Next would be the standard Navy trials for the
“measured” mile course off
Here we see the S.S. America at her fit-out berth on March 11, 1940
note her original rather low “San Pan” funnels, which had to
be heightened by a good 4.5m
But note her original rather low “San Pan” funnels, which had to be heightened by a good 4.5m
Here we see a delightful label featuring her forward “San Pan” funnel
completed S.S. America arrives on July 2 in
S.S. America was officially delivered to the United States Lines in
However, prior to her official maiden voyage, she did operate two special “ten hour voyages to nowhere.” On August 5, she sailed at 10.00 AM with some 1,300 travel agents on board, whilst the next day she sailed on another voyage with 1,500 freight agents.
Then on August 10, 1940, the beautiful S.S. America
finally departed on her maiden voyage, being a cruise of course to the
Great excitement before the new liner sets sail on her Maiden Voyage
America is seen departing on her maiden cruise to the
America returned on the 22nd August after her cruise to
In an amusing way, the
S.S. America certainly had a strikingly handsome appearance, and looked a well
balanced ship, with her black hull, red boot topping with a fine white line
separating it with the black hull, and the gleaming white superstructure. Thus,
she presented a sleek and certainly dramatic appearance as her tall prow was
severely flared with that slight “clipper” rake, and her nicely
designed superstructure of four decks above the main deck level, topped with a
beautifully curved bridge as well as her long glass enclosed promenade decks.
Then topping her beautifully-proportioned superstructure were those two now
taller oval shaped funnels, fitted with “San-Pan” tops. Although,
the forward funnel, was in reality a “dummy funnel” which was the
norm to create that well-balanced profile, but it did house an emergency
generator. The *“San Pan”
funnels were also fitted later to her new and larger sister ship, the S.S.
The S.S. America certainly had a strikingly handsome appearance, and looked a well balanced ship, with her black hull, red boot topping with a fine white line separating it with the black hull, and the gleaming white superstructure. Thus, she presented a sleek and certainly dramatic appearance as her tall prow was severely flared with that slight “clipper” rake, and her nicely designed superstructure of four decks above the main deck level, topped with a beautifully curved bridge as well as her long glass enclosed promenade decks. Then topping her beautifully-proportioned superstructure were those two now taller oval shaped funnels, fitted with “San-Pan” tops. Although, the forward funnel, was in reality a “dummy funnel” which was the norm to create that well-balanced profile, but it did house an emergency generator. The *“San Pan” funnels were also fitted later to her new and larger sister ship, the S.S. United States.
*”San Pan” funnels became very much a future trademark of United States Lines, and became a big feature on the S.S. United States and other of the company’s ships.
Here we see a 1952 German poster, but it does shows off the “San Pan” funnels rather well!
America was in many ways a very unusual liner, the reason being that she was
the very first American liner to have her interiors designed by women, who did
away with those old and crusty very traditional heavy and that overwrought
décor in favour of a far more friendly and modern, thus a more sophisticated
Thus, knowing the details as per above, which is not generally know, it becomes understandable that the S.S. America’s interiors was the ultimate in contemporary American design and décor, all thanks to her interiors designers “Smyth, Urquart & Marckwald” of New York, who decided to utilise items such as aluminium, stainless steel, ceramics and synthetic fibres as I already mentioned in part above.
Of particular interest was the circular First Class Smoking Room with a huge mural surrounded the aft entrance door, and the huge beautifully designed two deck high Main Lounge with the gallery above on two sides. Again the magnificent brass and glass forward doors was surrounded by a suberb huge mural that reached right up to the ceiling, then aft was a spacious stage for the orchestra and the screen, as this lounge was also used as the Cinema. The Ballroom of the S.S. America will not be easily forgotten by anyone who ever spent an evening in this particular Cabin/First Class venue, for it was without a doubt one of the most beautiful and stunning lounges ever conceived on any ship on the seven seas, it had than nightclub feel, yet this gold and red venue was sublimely elegant! Below on C Deck, there was the beautifully mosaic tiled indoor Swimming Pool. Cabin, later Tourist Class also had an superb range of elegant Lounges and these like those forward in Cabin/First Class were as superbly decorated and had that special woman’s toutch, as the images below will prove!
Images of her Interior’s
The Cabin, later the First Class, Main Lounge and her beautiful brass doors surrounded with a grand mural to say the least!
Colourised by the author
Above Left: Another look at the forward doors and mural of the Cabin/First Class Lounge
Above Right: A delightful lounge with style and glamour, yet in Tourist, later Cabin Class Lounge
The wonderful rich gold’s and red of the Cabin/First Class Ballroom!
Please Note: There is a separate page with photographs of her interiors, decks and accommodations!
S.S. America’s machinery had a weight of some 2,514 tons and consisted of two sets of Parsons geared steam turbines producing 34,000 SHP driving twin, four bladed screws. And this has brought me to her specifications, which I will now cover, but I will do this in far more detail than I do normally as you will see!
Names: S.S. America -
1939 to 1941.
Names: S.S. America - 1939 to 1941.
S.S. America - 1946 to 1964.
S.S. American Star - 1994.
Interior Architects: Eggers & Higgins, NY.
Launched: August 31, 1939.
Delivered: July 2, 1940.
Maiden Voyage: August 10, 1940.
Tonnage: 26,454 Gross Registered Tons (GRT) 1940.
35,440 Full Displacement Tons.
26,314 GRT - 1946.
33,961 GRT - 1960.
Length: 220.4m - 723ft.
Breadth: 28.4m - 3.6ft.
Draught: 8.83m -28ft.
Machinery: Two Parsons steam turbines from builders.
Screws: Two four bladed screws – 126 RPM – 37,400 SHP at normal speed.
Speed: 22 knots service speed, maximum over 24 knots.
Fuel Consumption: Around 250 tons per day.
Bunker capacity: 4,938 tons.
Cargo Capacity: 323,644 - 1940.
270,964 - 1946.
Watertight bulkheads: 14.
Passenger Decks: 10.
Pubic Venues: 23.
Passengers: 543 Cabin Class, 418 Tourist Class, 241 Third Class - 1940.
516 First Class, 371 Cabin Class, 159 Tourist Class – 1946.
516 First Class, 530, Tourist Class – 1960.
Officers and Crew: 618 - 1940.
785 - 1941 to 1946 USS West Point.
646 - 1946 to 1960.
675 - 1960.
interest: Although I have covered her names from 1964 to her end in 1994, none
of this will be covered on this page, except for the sale details at the end of
her career with the United States Lines! However, there are links to the
associate pages that will continue the story of the lives of this great Liner,
as well as her other pages, including a Photo Page and a comprehensive 1940
Deck Plan, with each deck having a link for enlargements!!
For interest: Although I have covered her names from 1964 to her end in 1994, none of this will be covered on this page, except for the sale details at the end of her career with the United States Lines! However, there are links to the associate pages that will continue the story of the lives of this great Liner, as well as her other pages, including a Photo Page and a comprehensive 1940 Deck Plan, with each deck having a link for enlargements!!
World War II:
SS America receives her grey war paint on June 2, 1941, days before she is officially commissioned for war duties
S.S. America was officially acquired by the United States Navy, and she would be converted from a 1,202 passenger liner to accommodate some 5,400, and later to over 8,000 service men and women. During the war she would transport well over 300,000 troops safely all over the world, and she also sailed without escort ships to protect her. Using the ship’s speed and manoeuvrability, her crew outwitted hostile craft at sea.
On June 1, 1941, the U.S. Navy, due to nature
of the European conflict, requested that the S.S. America be converted into a
fully operating Troop Transport ship. Just two weeks later, the Navy officially
commissioned her as the U.S.S. West Point and drafted her into the service of
her country. On June 21, 1941, the Secretary of the Navy announced that it was
Strangely enough, the U.S.S. West Point was known as the Queen of the transports operated by the Naval Transportation Service, yet some called her the “monster” as she has a monster of a job to do. To be very honest, no more than any of the other great liners used during the war!
Although she had been stripped of her peace time interior beauty and her lush lounge and smoking room venues had been altered to accommodate large numbers, yet she still bore her partial trappings of her pre-war beauty. It was not uncommon for member of the crew to find them-selves sleeping in deluxe suites, which were previously listed at around US$100 per night. In addition, many of the original murals remained to suggest the “Wows’” from the soldiers sailing on this great liner during the war years.
Externally, a row of life rafts covered her Promenade Deck windows, and four-tier “standee” bunks were installed just about everywhere, giving her an initial capacity of 5,400 men and placements for women. The Smoking Room and Cocktail Lounge became the officers wardroom and their mess, whilst, amazingly the Library became the main toilet. The main Lounge was used as a movie theatre and other uses, whilst the magnificent Ball Room had bunks for 545 men, the Dining Room became the enlisted men’s mess and the adjoining foyer was used to wash the mess kits. Two desalinization units, paravanes, two mast look-out platforms, and 1,500 tons of ballast were also added.
Refitting the AP-23 at the Norfolk Navy Yards included the
installation of the following; Four single 5”/38 cal dual purpose gun
mounts. Four single 3”/50 cal dual purpose gun mounts, four twin 40mm AA
gun mounts and eight .50 cal machine guns. Although the
An excellent view of her war paint – camouflage
Having had a brief shakedown cruise along the
Atlantic seaboard, the U.S.S. West Point began her Navy career during the
“unofficial” phase of the war in the
Her career almost ended during the,
early months of the Pacific War, when she and the, U.S.S. Wakefield, being the
former S.S. Manhattan, were sent to sail for Singapore early in 1942 to aid in
the evacuation of refugees from the Malayan Peninsula. They arrived at the very
height of Japanese attacks on the beleaguered city.
Her career almost ended during the, early months of the Pacific War, when she and the, U.S.S. Wakefield, being the former S.S. Manhattan, were sent to sail for Singapore early in 1942 to aid in the evacuation of refugees from the Malayan Peninsula. They arrived at the very height of Japanese attacks on the beleaguered city.
For several days, whilst loading operations
were frantically carried on, her crews watched the enemy bombers very carefully
as they roared over the dock area on their way to
But suddenly, on the third day, as it was
reported, “Lady Luck deserted us”. Instead of the planes heading
toward the city, they flew over the harbour installations and it was just
seconds before crews and those onboard began to comprehend the complete
helplessness of their situation. A few minutes later the harbour and dock area
were turned into a roaring and fiery inferno. With bombs bursting within just
50 yards of the U.S.S. West Point’s hull, WITH Shrapnel being scattered
everywhere on her weather decks, whilst the U.S.S. Wakefield was set ablaze due
to a direct hit. As soon as possible,
As a troopship the U.S.S. West Point also
In June 1943 Captain
Even after the
Here we see her stern and her three gun placements
The U.S.S. West Point also took part in the
“Magic Carpet” Operation. In this role, she made many voyages
transferring men and material from both theatres of operations. Besides
soldiers, U.S.S. West Point has carried sailors amid marines and other war-time
seafarers, allied forces, Red Cross workers, United Nations officials, and USO,
officials, high, government officials, service nurses, WAC’s and war
brides. But also civilians caught in war zones, prisoners of war, refugees and
children. In addition, there was even a baby born aboard whilst the ship was
In continuous service since the outbreak of the war, the U.S.S. West Point transported more than 350,000 troops she certainly had the largest capacity of any Navy Troopship in service during World War II. On one voyage alone, being in August 1944, she carried, including ship's company, a grand total of 9,305 people. And considering she carried over 350,000 troops, being massive numbers, that is a good share of a grand total of 450,000 soldiers, sailors, and marines that were sent overseas during the entire war!
Above & Below: Two dramatic images when the U.S.S. West Point (AP-23) arrived home
The U.S.S. West
Point also covered more than 436,144 miles, being equal to 16 voyages around
the globe. The ship has made as many as 24 crossings of the
The U.S.S. West Point was reassigned to the
Pacific on December 5, 1945, and she sailed departed
Having arrived in
For the most part, her wartime voyages were made without the protection of convoy warships. Her main defence was her great speed, which has never been officially released, but it was well over 25 knots! In addition, she was the amazing war-time ship that survived in astonishing circumstances, never once broke down, and she had not lost a single passenger!
From Pier 88 she proceeded to
December 4, 1946, the now decommissioned as flagship of the United States
Lines, received her final tribute from the U.S. Navy as the S.S. America became
the first merchant vessel to receive a Warrant to fly the “Naval Reserve
Pennant.” In a ceremony on the bridge of the S.S. America,
To restore the ship to her original role was going to be an expensive business, and sadly, in 1941 in their haste to prepare her for the navy, many of her valuable fittings had been discarded, and some of her original pieces of art as well as some precious brass works had been lost. Due to the naval alteration, her accommodation numbers were also lowered and now instead of a total of 1,202 now it would be just 1,046 maximum in her three classes, which was now designated as, First Class, Cabin Class and Tourist Class.
The S.S. America returned to
The S.S. America looks smart fully repainted and ready to become a Trans Atlantic Liner!
The photographer is unknown to the author. Please see the photo notes at the bottom of the page
Amazingly, the gleaming S.S. America and the
new British Liner the R.M.S. Queen Elizabeth arrived in New York at much the
same time, for both ships had been affected by the war and would commence their
commercial duties just now. Both ships were welcomed by a large flotilla of craft, in addition the
Navy, put on a display of escort destroyers, as well as a blimp and had some 30
aircraft in the air welcoming the ex US.S. West Point/America to
Just prior her departure on November 14, 1946,
the S.S. America was honoured by a most gracious visit by the Presidents
For the S.S. America this was much more than just commencing her commercial voyage, for this voyage was the start of the fulfilment of what she was designed to do, and now finally so long after her maiden voyage she had finally become the “Trans-Atlantic Liner” she was meant to be!
A wonderful aerial photograph of the S.S. America
Note the Third Class Promenade Deck, located on Upper Deck, directly forward of the superstructure
Directly below, two decks down on A Deck are the Third Class Main Lounge and Smoking Room
Obviously, her first winter voyages forced all
But it need to be said that the S.S. America
was the Unites States largest Liner, as well as being the country’s
“Ship of State,” thus she was in many ways a showcase for the very
best in American engineering, as well as art, craftsmanship, superior interior
design and of course the very best in fine cuisine. Being an all American
product, she featured Oregon pine decking as well as
S.S. America is seen at
All the aforementioned came together to create a truly First Class experience that would attract not just the Tourists, but also Diplomats, Royalty and the countless Hollywood stars and world famous Recording stars alike! She very soon proved to be a success, as her Cabin Class was simply the very best, whilst her Tourist Class was more like most other company’s First Classes, and Third Class was indeed most comfortable with three fine Lounges and a spacious Dining Room!
S.S. America “Sailing Schedule” from December 1947 to December 1948
Provided by Björn Larsson www.timetableimages.com/maritime/images/list.htm#O
United States lines are famous for their excellent maintenance programs, and the S.S. America was taken back to Newport-News-Yards early in 1950 for a good hull maintenance check, thus she was placed into dry-dock and had some additional interior work undertaken.
What is so very special about this photograph? Yes we can see the SS America at the Newport-News-Yard on April 2, 1950
But there is something more! Right next to her, on her starboard side you can see the skeleton of what will be the greatest American Liner ever to be built, the S.S. United States, winner of both the East & West bound “Blue Riband” and holds it still!
As her over all popularity increased on
October 25, 1951 her service had been extended to
America is seen berthed at the Columbus Pier at
The photographer is unknown to the author. Please see the photo notes at the bottom of the page
Her early voyages faced all that the
During her next
maintenance and refit at the Newport-News-Yards, she received in 1960, her
accommodations were altered with some upgrades done and she finally became a
Two Class Liner! She accommodated the same number of passengers, a total of
1,046, but it would be 516 in First Class and 530 in Tourist Class, with the ex
Third Class Lounge, Smoking Room and Dining Room being used for other purposes.
Upon completion she was registered at 33,961 GRT.
During her next maintenance and refit at the Newport-News-Yards, she received in 1960, her accommodations were altered with some upgrades done and she finally became a Two Class Liner! She accommodated the same number of passengers, a total of 1,046, but it would be 516 in First Class and 530 in Tourist Class, with the ex Third Class Lounge, Smoking Room and Dining Room being used for other purposes. Upon completion she was registered at 33,961 GRT.
An all new Two Class Liner appears for duties!
The photographer is unknown to the author. Please see the photo notes at the bottom of the page
Even though the
S.S. America’s final American days:
Sadly, after 24
years of exemplary service, her long career under the United States flag was
about to come to an end, which was due to two factors; 1. Air
travel having become more and more popular, and 2. Thanks
to the never ending labour disputes that was destroying passenger shipping on
both sides of the
America berthed in
Thus, with the great
and wonderful ship that was once
It has been well recorded that the S.S. America served during WW2 and achieved greatness being a rare ship during that dangerous time never to have broken down, and for the most part her voyages were extremely dangerous, as she sailed without any accompanying of convoy warships, thus she did not have any protection, except her own guns onboard! It was said that her main defence was her great speed, and her official speed has never really been officially released, but we do know that it was more than what we have been told it being of around 25 knots!
survived being bombed in
Considering that she as the U.S.S. West Point
she carried well over 350,000 troops, being huge numbers and that she also
covered more than 436,144 miles, being equal to 16 complete voyages around the
globe. The S.S. America has a record of greatness both in wartime, but she was
also one of the finest liners, as she offered the very best of American style
and comfort across the
There is no doubt that the S.S. America had a
smooth and a trouble free career that would be until September 1963, when the
union commenced their strikes and industrial action and that hit the ship very
hard. Amazingly, she even came under a racial discrimination claim from some
her workers, and for that reason, this great ship was tragically forced into
complete layup. This was a disgraceful union beat-up that forced her into an
extended five month layup, in fact until February 7, 1964, when she finally was
to depart for
However as she was about to depart, Captain Fender was advised that there was some industrial action going on within the Tug’s, but not related to the ship in any way, but there were no tug working at all. Thus the Captain decided that he would not be delayed one single minute and that he would to take his ship out without any assistance, as there were no tugs, even though there were strong winds blowing that day! The great S.S. America slowly moved from her pier and departed from New Yourk completely unaided and she was on her way on time!
A fine starboard view of the S.S. America
The photographer is unknown to the author. Please see the photo notes at the bottom of the page
Sadly the United States Lines was running into difficulties financially, and it would appear that plans had been made for S.S. America’s voyage on October 27, 1964 to be her very last with the company.
It would be without any ceremony whatsoever, as there had not been any public announcements, the proud S.S. America slowly and proudly left Pier 86 on October 9, 1964 having just 439 passengers aboard.
On October 9, she departed for her very last return Trans Atlantic voyage ever!
She returned to
She arrived home to
On November 4, 1964 the United States Lines
officially requested permission from the Maritime Administration to sell the
S.S. America to “Okeania
Considering the company was losing as much as US$1.5 million per year, even whilst receiving US$3 million in subsidies. But keeping all things in mind, the Maritime Administration approval came the very next day, when it was announced that there was a sale for US$6.5 million, complete with the understanding she not compete with any of the U.S. flag liners from American ports for at least five years and if necessary, would be made available for war emergency use and be either under the U.S. flag, that of Greece as part of NATO!
S.S. America was handed over to the author’s dear friend
all white the ex S.S.
During her commercial service the S.S. America made some commercial 288 voyages having accommodated a remarkable 476,462 passengers. Each year she made between 15 to 18 round voyages, and personally having sailed on her a good number of times, I believe that she was the perfect ship as far as her size is concerned, and her internal beauty, sheer comfort, and her having that great speed! Also, she was a ship that never had any real problems of any kind and that made her the PERFECT LINER!
Farewell to the Wonderful S.S. America as she Heads for New Water’s
But leaving us with so Many Great Memories!
This photograph was of her second maiden voyage, her very first commercial Trans-Atlantic crossing
S.S. America & Australis INDEX:
Page One ……………….S.S.
…………….1940 Deck Plans.
……………….S.S. Australis History Page from 1964 to her sad end in 1994.
……………….Brochure & Photo & Page One.
………………….Brochure & Photo Page Two.
Other Chandris Ships INDEX:
………………..Ex Matson Lines liner
……………..Ex Matson Lines SS Monterey, but renamed Lurline & Matsonia.
Please Note: Not all pages have been updated and completed as yet.
“Blue Water Liners
sailing to the distant shores.
I watched them come, I watched them go and I watched them die.”
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